Nutrition behavior at pregnancy and lactation period

Stay healthy | 2019

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New European Surgical Academy).

Since 2000, prof. dr. Werner Seebauer worked only in preventive medicine, after ten years spent at the Frankfurt University Hospital.

He is also involved in the medical professionals training for nutrition and prevention.

MediHelp International contributes to the medical science development and is actively involved in the international social responsibility advocacy.

 

 

The diet during this time

Twice better instead of twice as much

Risks at pregnancy and lactation period in the context of nutrition factors

  • Malnutrition (pronounced macro- and micronutrient deficiencies)
  • Pronounced mineral deficiency (e.g., iodine)
  • pronounced vitamin D deficiency
    * due to low sun exposure (Vitamin D deficiency, for example, due to body coverage, dark skin color, season)
  • unbalanced vegetarian- or vegan- diet, or some culturally influenced diets
  • Smokers *
  • Alcohol consumption *
  • Higher pollutant exposures * (environmental but also food pollutants)
  • Acute infections * (toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, streptococci, chickenpox, rubella and other infections caused by viruses, bacteria or mycosis)
  • Some chronic diseases *
  • Overweight or underweight*
  • Poverty
  • Follow-up pregnancy in a short time
  • Pregnancies with twins or more babies
  • Adolescents women

* These factors are already inherent risk factors; in the context of nutrition or supplementation, they require more nutrients. If they are inadequate this may increase the maternal and child risks during pregnancy and later.

At this point, the topics are treated only in the context of nutrition. Issues related to infection risks will be discussed later. The toxic aspects of smoking, alcohol, and drugs are not treated extra. Their harmfulness is well known and beyond doubt.

Annotation

At some point in the letter, a few background information are given, which are not necessary for the practical nutrition consultation and realization. However, they are given to get some insight into the study situation and coherence.

Recommendations - already during planning the pregnancy

The general recommendations for nutrition, supplements and the avoidance of pollutants already apply to the period before pregnancy in the planning and then they become even more important from the onset of pregnancy. In addition to the recommendations of nutrition topics presented here, for the other factors of a healthy lifestyle should, of course, also be given better attention (sufficient physical activity, good sleep, stress reduction, etc.).

For the safe supply of nutrients, which are often suboptimal or deficient, some supplements are regularly recommended. These are essentially folic acid, iodine, and on-demand iron. These are usually useful and often even necessary to reduce the risk of malformations of the child and pregnancy complications.

Also, for the additional intake of omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA) and vitamin D, some data that prove a benefit. Whether vitamin D should be supplemented depends on the season and the sun's contact with the skin; Omega-3 fatty acids should be extra supplemented depending on your diet.

The recommendations usually refer to "normal" pregnancies. In the case of existing diseases and or severely overweight or underweight women, smokers, alcoholics, or other complications the conditions should be discussed with the gynecologist individually.

More information on nutrition’s health programming to later years “Metabolic Programming” already in the fetus and infant

Epidemiological data from large studies show convincing evidence that the risk for children or adults chronic diseases is influenced not only by genetic dispositions but also by lifestyle factors such as nutrition.

In the study of the time factors and chronology of the influencing variables, it is shown that early health effects are already being characterized during early, important stages of development of the fetus and infant. This is done through hormones and metabolic processes and is defined as "Metabolic Programming".

In the context of this programming, study data recognized lifelong imprint effects on the health or various chronic disease risks, as well as on neurological functions and even behavioral disorders. This decisively influences well-being and can influence development opportunities.

For example, over-nutrition of the mother during pregnancy may cause adverse fetal programming and risk predisposition to the metabolic syndrome (prediabetes) (DGE Nutrition Review7/08).

About 20 million Germans are affected by metabolic syndrome and the numbers have been increasing steadily in recent years. Later lifestyle factors also play important roles in the development, but early programming can make the unfavorable progression and make the problem solving difficult.

Even during breastfeeding, the child’s metabolic programming continues.

"Normal" weight gain during pregnancy

Overweight of the mother - risks for mother and child

Because overweight and pre-pregnancy obesity, as well as excessive weight gain during pregnancy, increase the overweight risk* for women and children over the following years, existing overweight should be reduced or eliminated before pregnancy. The weight of the woman before the start of pregnancy probably has an even greater influence on the overweight risk and other health aspects of the child.

*  Increased risks are more likely to develop gestational diabetes, high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia as well as over-growth of the fetus with overall increased birth complications.

By contrast, being underweight before pregnancy can increase the risk of miscarriages (abortions), premature births, or low birth weight infants.

With gestational diabetes also miscarriages and premature births are more common. Early-onset of pregnancy diabetes can lead, undetected and untreated, to infantile death or for example malformations of the heart.

More on gestational diabetes (prevention, screening, and therapy) 

Extreme weight loss diets during pregnancy are not recommended. An overweight pregnant woman, however, should have a lower weight gain during pregnancy.

It is best to lose weight before pregnancy. For women with adiposity already a weight reduction of 5-10% of the starting weight before pregnancy can have a significant positive effect on the health and reduce some risks.From: Diet and lifestyle during pregnancy Thieme reprint 2018 (JournalGerman language)

In a pregnant woman with a starting position at a normal weight, a normal pregnancy weight gain is between 11 - 16 kg. While it should be slightly more kilograms in underweight women, overweight should increase significantly less (see Table 1). The later risk of overweight in women and in children increases more with higher weight gain and especially if women were already overweight before pregnancy.

Table 1:  IOM Report 2009

Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)

Overall Weight – Gain kg

2nd and 3rd Trimester Rate of Weight Gain kg / week

<18.5  underweight 12,7 - 18,14kg 0,45kg
18.5 - 24.9  normal weight 11,34 - 15,88kg  0,45kg 
25.0 - 29.9 overweight
6,8 - 11,34kg
0,27kg
>30  obese 5 - 9,1kg 0,23kg

Institute of Medicine. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2009

Hivert Research Journal Obesity, 2016, Volume24,  Issue7; Goldberg, Gail R. Nursing Standard (through 2013); Rasmussen National Academy Press, 2009; RF Goldstein, JAMA. 2017; MargerisonZilko CE, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 202, Issue 6, 2010

The normal weight gain during pregnancy is calculated based on the following factors

  • At birth, your baby weighs about 3.300g.
  • During pregnancy, the uterus increases significantly by about 900g
  • The placenta weighs around 600g
  • Breasts are about 400g heavier.
  • The blood volume increases by 1,200g.
  • The extra fluid in the body weights of about 2,600g.
  • About 2,500g are for more fat reserves that provide additional energy for breastfeeding.

Nutrient and energy requirements during pregnancy

The nutrient and energy requirements are increased during pregnancy, but not so much that the women must eat for two. The device is: not twice as much, but twice as good!

The need for some micronutrients increases more than the energy requirement. 

Only in the last pregnancy months, the energy requirement is just about 10% higher than before pregnancy.

  • In the second trimester of pregnancy, the energy requirement is about 250 kcal per day higher than before
  • and in the third trimester (last 3 months) the demand is 500 kcal per day higher if the physical activity remains unimpaired.

Many women, however, have a significantly reduced physical activity in the last months of pregnancy, so then no increased energy intake is needed.

Diet in pregnancy and lactation period

Nutritional optimization should best be realized in the long term before pregnancy.

The nutritional recommendations for pregnancy and the healthy development of the child during pregnancy and breastfeeding are not fundamentally different from the previous recommendations made in the Nutrition Circle and the Food Pyramid.

There are a few exceptions that concern the prevention of a potential risk of infection from the food, or potentially higher levels of pollution load, which are more damaging to the child than to adults (see below "what should be avoided").

"Observational studies show a lower risk of gestational diabetes in diets high in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, legumes, and fish; a diet rich in fat, lots of red meat and eggs is associated with a higher risk of gestational diabetes "(German Nutrition Society DGE 2018).

The biggest part of the diet should depend on vegetables (about 20%) and whole grains (about 25%). Almost as large amounts should come from the groups of legumes and fruits (about 15% each).

You can also vary the quantities between the groups here.

For various reasons, it seems to be a significant advantage that 75% of the composition consists of high-quality food of vegan origin and only about 25% food of animal origin.

  • For vegetables and fruits, you can get the message "5 a day", which means 5 servings (3 vegetables, 2 fruits) a day - one serving is equivalent to a handful. The wide-ranging variety (preferably different colors) is important.
  • Besides, legumes and whole grains as well as nuts, seeds and sprouts should be consumed often.
  • Depending on physical activity and ambient temperature (lots of sweat) the women need plenty of fluids (preferably calorie-free - water and/or fruit teas). - often about 2-3 liters per day. With very hot temperatures and high physical activity, the demand quantity can multiply.
  • Consumption of 1-2 servings of high-fat fish per week is recommended*
    - best e.g. salmon, herring and mackerel - always low in pollution -best from the deep sea (e.g. the Arctic Northern Atlantic) - to ensure omega-3 fatty acid intake. If necessary, supplementation (see below)
    * If there is any uncertainty as to whether the fish has a higher exposure to mercury, arsenic, and other metals, it is difficult to decide whether you compose your diet without fish as a precaution (for marine fish from regions of higher pollution load, e.g.from the Baltic Sea and generally more inhabited, farmed or industrial used coastal regions, better abstain this fish and take additionally more supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. The supplement should also be tested to have no harmful substances.
  • For Amino Acids – Proteins in addition to bioavailability, the content, the combination and the preparation is important. In our culture, there is usually no deficiency of proteins.
  • A good diet is also possible without animal protein: The combination of legumes (also as shake powder and pastes or as soy drink, etc.) plus nuts and seeds (also as pastes or in bread, in muesli, etc.) delivers very good sources.
  • Food of animal origin should be consumed to a smaller extent. Especially high-fat foods of the animal source (except fatty fish) should be reduced - also red meat (this is any meat except poultry meat) should be reduced. Sausages should rather be avoided.
  • For fats, preference should be given to oils made from rapeseed and olives, as well as linseed and nut oils are good.
    - Fat sources with too much saturated fatty acids as well as high omega-6 fatty acid levels should be restricted.
  • Hardened fats and trans-fatty acids should also be avoided as far as possible (for example, in spread-hardened oils, fried products, partly pastries.
  • Low amounts of sweets, sugary drinks, and snack foods (as well as other things contained in the top of the food pyramid) are occasionally tolerable.
  • Alcohol should be avoided absolutely.

Read more about pollutants and reducing or avoiding foods below

What Pregnant Women Should Not Eat - Protection from Food Infections and Pollutants 

At this point, foods and things are listed that women should avoid or reduce as much as possible during pregnancy and breastfeeding period because there is an increased risk of infection and potential harm to the child. In general, any human being can be harmed by pollutants in the long term, but certain pollutants are not acutely effective (acute relevant toxic). 

In the fetus and infants, many pollutants are much more effective, more toxic. Since the pollutants often act on the child through the placenta and the mother's milk, fetus and infants have a much higher dose-response relationship, according to their low body mass, the toxicity there is significantly stronger.

A few insights, for example, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium

Mercury (e.g. from shellfish and larger predatory fish) is estimated that the fetus and infants are 5-10 times more sensitive for it, and it is estimated to have faster and higher neurotoxicity, which can lead to developmental and behavioral disorders as well as speech-, memory- and attention deficits.

Motoric and cognitive developmental disorders due to heavy metals are especially noticeable. At mercury stressed mothers, the infants first abnormalities are: delayed learning to walk and to speak, and later at four to seven-year-old children auditive problems (hearing difficulty) and increased muscle tonus in the legs were also noted

Longer has known the burden of rice with cadmium and arsenic (mainly from water-farming areas in Asia). Both also have neurotoxic effects. 

Among the most heavily contaminated rice varieties, some toxicologists estimate that the highest tolerable arsenic dose in infants is already reached in as little as 20g rice waffles per week.

As a good alternative, you can use corn waffles for children.  For corn and other cereals have found no arsenic pollution.

For adults, it is recommended to use the rice prepared according to the Indian method. Boil the rice in six times the amount of water and then pour off the water at the end. Chemists have found that the arsenic content can be reduced by 35 to 45% with this preparation method.

In addition to rice, marine animals and algae often contain arsenic.

For puffed rice (rice waffles) was measured more than 10-30 times the dose of arsenic than is allowed in drinking water.

In infants, related to the body weight, the intake of arsenic through rice-containing food is 2 to 3 times higher than that of adults, so it is recommended to take extra care.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) calculated 2014 that infants fed on rice-based infant-formula can ingest 1.96 μg inorganic arsenic /kg bw /day from this food.

The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment Germany (BfR) declares in 2015 that the tolerable daily intake of arsenic cannot be precisely defined and only points out that caution is required in babies and infants.

However, due to the known toxicological research results, the risk should be rated higher and precautionary rice from wetlands should be avoided during pregnancy and in the food of babies as well infants (rice from dry cultivation is preferable). 

The Bavarian State Office for Health and Food Safety calculated after analyzing various diets with rice 2010-2011 (rice waffles were the highest-burden), that for a child (age 1-3 years) with consistent consumption of up to 11 mini-rice waffles (of 2g each) per month - so 22g per month - no significant health risk is to be expected. If children occasionally consume larger quantities of rice waffles, it is advisable to increase the intervals between eating such waffles. It is recommended to change the cereals for small children more often. 

My recommendation is, to abstain from the rice for babies and infants if you do not know where the rice comes from and what arsenic doses it contains. 

Note: The otherwise healthier wholegrain rice contains higher arsenic values than the polished white rice when exposed to arsenic (from water farming).

In the following, further background information is omitted for a better overview. It merely lists what should be avoided or at least reduced.

What pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid or reduce - overview

  • Avoid total raw animal foods
    - Danger of toxoplasmosis and listeriosis (heating for at least 2 minutes to over 70°C inside the food kills listeria and toxoplasma)
    - Danger of salmonella infection (to kill salmonella it takes at least 10 minutes to over 70°C inside the foods
  • Do not consume large predatory fish, shellfish and crustaceans, as well as coastal sea bottom (ground) animals>> [Heavy metal pollution, mercury, lead, etc.] - e.g. Tuna, shark, swordfish, king mackerel, crabs, seashells, octopus, etc. 
  • No raw fish and fish products, sushi, etc. >> infection risk
  • No pickled fish and smoked fish>> still infection risk
  • No products from raw milk* like cheese (listeriosis risk): soft cheese, not even from heat-treated milk (only pasteurized) 
  • No unpasteurized milk (especially no unpasteurized goat's milk)
    * Annotation: Cream cheese, cottage cheese or yogurt are harmless, as they are sold in Germany only from pasteurized milk. Raw milk products must be legally declared as such ("made from raw milk")
  • No raw meat – only strong cooked meat
  • No raw sausages like raw ham, salami, meat-sausage, etc.
  • No raw eggs and any foods and products made from them without cooking - only eggs that are hard-boiled
  • For eggs and egg products (including desserts) only really longer heated egg products
  • Vit. A-supplements should be avoided by pregnant women
    - Avoid liver – it has high dose Vitamin A (avoid in the first trimester of pregnancy in any case - but later better too)
    - Pro-Retinol = ß-Carotene is the precursor of Vitamin A  >> it is harmless*
    * (Only for smokers ß-Carotene is questionable as a high dose supplement! In the matrix of normal food it has no risk – and pregnant as well as breastfeeding women should not smoke in any case!)
  • No alcohol - absolutely no smoking (also no "passive smoking", no rooms where smoking is or was before) - no other drugs.
    - This should already be taken very seriously during the period of pregnancy planning

Alcohol, smoking and other drugs should not be trivialized – you should not underestimate it

By such pollutants during pregnancy and possibly even during the pregnancy planning period, for example, can lead to miscarriages, premature birth, malformations, damage to nerve cells and permanent disability. As a result of the damage, some irreversible mental retardations are observed in the children.

There is no secure time-window for pregnancy planning and during the pregnancy, in which these pollutants would not pose any risk. Therefore, alcohol, as well as smoking and other drugs should be avoided.

Low doses of alcohol are considered harmless by some sources, but there is no safety. 

Even though "the dose makes the poison", it is always important to note that various environmental pollution or toxins can accumulate and can mutually increase the damage effects - and sometimes even potentiate them. It must be specially warned in these sensitive phases. So even a low dose is not safe.

The quitting of smoking should be done by the whole family in the household in sufficient time before the pregnancy planning and be sustained (for this purpose it is recommended to use help programs of health institutions). For Babies, infants, children, and adolescents, smoke (passive smoking) is much more harmful than for adults.

Even e-cigarettes are a source of risk and should be avoided.

Some medications - pharmaceutics must be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding 

Pregnant and breastfeeding women should take or stop medicines only after medical consultation.

For the fetus and the developing child, certain pharmaceuticals may have a different effect than for adults and may have adverse effects that may even cause serious harm. 

For the vast majority of pharmaceutics, however, there are no adequate studies in connection with pregnancy and during breastfeeding, because tests are not ethically acceptable and prohibit during this time. In this respect, one is very careful and advises against some medicines for safety reasons.

Women with pregnancy planning and pregnant or breastfeeding women should always seek medical advice if they need medication. And the physician must weigh the benefit-risk ratio strictly if no alternative is possible for a safe declared drug.

At the medical University of Charité Berlin, you can find information on medicines (safety or doubtfulness or contraindication) during pregnancy and lactation on the websitewww.embryotox.de. (German language)

Furthermore, pregnant women should reduce or avoid as much as possible:

  • Fried foods should also be reduced or better avoided
  • Chips and soluble dried coffee (e.g. Nescafe) are to restrict or rather to avoid (relation to acrylamide) 
  • Avoid food packaged in plastic (PCBs and softeners) - Be careful to use Tetra Pak and plastic bottles (Tetra Pak carton for beverage or milk packaging is coated inside with plastic and aluminum foil)
  • Lead-containing e.g. in drinking water from old pipes in old houses (lead pies were allowed in houses of south Germany until 1878 Nord- u. East Germany until the 1970s)
  • Lead is partly elevated in wild mushrooms (from the forest), seafood, venison meat, tobacco smoke, but also large-leafed lettuce varieties, which were grown close to industry and high-traffic roads
  • Rice from water-growing areas is rather to avoid (potentially too high cadmium and arsenic pollution)
  • Cadmium in tobacco smoke, road traffic,
  • Cadmium is released via acidic food from ceramic enamel
  • Cadmium is increased in chocolate from regions with many volcanoes (cocoa or chocolate from Africa and some areas of South America are less loaded – compared to Middle America)
  • Dioxin: Baltic herring and Baltic salmon are more heavily polluted
    - River trout (depending on the creek) are mostly not heavily polluted and fish from the Arctic ocean is also usually less polluted
  • Avoid aflatoxins from mold  -beware of grains, nuts, fruits, spices
  • Quinine-containing drinks should not be consumed in large quantities
  • Avoid in food-production-related toxins* by strong roasting and grilling – e.g. cereals and meat
    - do not eat heavily grilled - burnt (charred) pieces of meat, fish, vegetable, and pastries
    - Restrict or avoid sausage and other cured or smoked meat or fish
    - Avoid strongly toasted (roasted) pastry should be avoided.
    * (PAHs and HAAs - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic (aromatic) amines from incomplete high-temperature burning)
  • Too high nitrate and nitrosamine levels should be restricted or avoided (for example arugula salad, rhubarb, sausage, cured meat)

Coffee - caffeinated drinks

Pregnant women should only drink caffeine-containing drinks in moderate amounts.

Energy drinks pregnant women should better avoid, because of the high sugar content and the unpredictable interactions with other ingredients (such as taurine, guarana, sugar substitutes or sweeteners and other substances)

Pregnant women can generally enjoy up to 3 small cups (125 ml) of unsweetened coffee safely throughout the day. However, since caffeine pass the placenta, and the effects on the fetus, which is very sensitive to it, can be difficult to study, pregnant women should better drink only one cup of coffee (125 ml) per day if it is not decaffeinated.

According to the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), a caffeine dose of 200 mg/day is given as a safe dose for the healthy pregnant woman.

Meta-analyses of studies (case-control studies) show a significantly increased risk of miscarriage from 300 mg caffeine/day (especially in the first few months).

As a rough orientation you can estimate*:

  1. A cup of coffee (125-140ml) has about 67 - 112mg of caffeine. By the way, it is similar to strong brewed black tea. 
  2. A cup of espresso (50 ml) has about 50-60 mg of caffeine.
  3. A glass of cola (200ml) usually contains between 10-40 mg of caffeine.
  4. A cup of common black tea (140 ml) contains 20-50mg of caffeine; green tea has lower caffeine or theophylline levels and the effects are delayed.
    * according to the federal food key 1995 - Kirschbaum et al. 2001

Following the next topics

On the subject of vegetarian and vegan nutrition in pregnancy, with vegan or vegetarian nutrition, a deficiency can arise mainly for:

  • Vitamin B12,
  • Folic acid,
  • Iron,
  • Iodine
  • and possibly zinc * as well as proteins *
  • There may also be a relative deficiency in the bioactive forms of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA).
  • possibly calcium (for vegans) – Topic Antinutrients

Supplementation of micronutrients before and during pregnancy and lactation 

The need for a range of micronutrients increases significantly during pregnancy and lactation time, but the higher doses of the most vitamins and minerals can be met by a balanced selection of foods with a high nutrient density, without the diet is high caloric. The balanced consumption of fruits and vegetables (including salads), as well as whole grains, legumes, sprouts, and seeds provides a good balance of nutrients.

For some nutrients, it may be harder to meet the needs well, so for safety's sake, supplementation with standardized supplements is recommended.

This concerns folic acid, iodine and iron, if required. Further supplementation needs are diet-related or due to other factors, such as illnesses or season of the year.

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The continuous evolution of technology is causing various changes in all areas, and the healthcare industry is not excluded. In 2015, Nuance Communications, a renowned multinational computer software technology corporation, released details of a study...

Stay healthy | 2017

10 Feb

“Telemedicine” or “telehealth” is a practice meant to get medical care out of the hospital and to where the people are. Driven by the evolution of technology and made easy by the multitude of electronic means of communication, telemedicine debuted...

Stay healthy | 2017

15 Nov

According to ZF.ro, in the past years, Romanians have been trying to optimize their budget by becoming more careful with Christmas spending. Moreover, in 2014, 44% of Romanians have stated that one of the main resolutions for the upcoming years is managing...

Stay healthy | 2016

25 Nov

When winter comes and the low temperatures take us our body by surprise, our immune system is often weak, which leads to us being less resistant to external viruses and bacteria. When colds and flus get in the way of our everyday schedule, their symptoms...

Stay healthy | 2016

05 Dec

Winter holidays always come with sumptuous festive meals, which is why they are often associated with food poisoning. Therefore, the key word for this season when it comes about food is “moderation”. Furthermore, nutritionists recommend including in...

Stay healthy | 2016

11 Dec

Medical emergencies can appear in our life at anytime and can have a major impact on us, especially from a financial point of view. Furthermore, while medical prevention should be a priority for every family, the high costs of medical services often lead...

Stay healthy | 2016

16 Mar

Was the first spring present you received a runny nose? Do you sneeze or cough more than usual? You might be one of the millions of people who suffer from spring allergies. Seasonal allergies develop when the body’s immune system becomes sensitized...

Stay healthy | 2017

16 Mar

As much as we love the warm temperatures springtime comes with, one thing we can’t always avoid is „spring asthenia”. As real as it can be, this medical condition is defined as a constant state of exhaust and fatigue caused by season changing. Along with...

Stay healthy | 2017

14 Jan

While preparing for the new year, more and more people start putting on paper resolutions for a fresh year, better than the last. From these lists, one resolution that stands out the most is „leading a healthier lifestyle” which can mean either eating...

Stay healthy | 2017

04 Apr

With Easter less than two weeks away and most places fully booked, you’re probably wondering if planning a get-away this holiday is such a good idea. Indeed, planning a vacation in such a short amount of time can be pretty stressful, so we found the...

Stay healthy | 2017

04 Apr

While some people see animals as hairy, messy and allergy-causing beings, most of us can’t imagine our lives without a pet, and statistics are here to prove it: according to PFMA (Pet Food Manufacturer’s Association), there are over 70 million...

Stay healthy | 2017

09 May

This year we made a plan: to be healthier, more fit and to break our bad eating habits. However, summer is just around the corner and the high temperatures are unbearable without lots of water and... ice cream. Yes, ice cream is one of the things that gets...

Stay healthy | 2017

09 May

The real summer season is less than a month away, but the high temperature is already giving us a hard time. Here are some tips for you, that will help you stay cool and healthy during these months. Boost up your fruit income – besides...

Stay healthy | 2017

15 Jun

Kids might be on vacation, but us, the grown ups might not be ready for a vacation yet. However, the heat can become unbearable in Bucharest and, at times, we don’t even feel like leaving the house. But when you do want to defeat the heat and get more...

Stay healthy | 2017

18 Jul

In 2004, the story of Laura Afrasine with MediHelp International started with the first serious interview of her life, when she received the most complicated question: where do you think you are going to be over 5 years? What followed after this...

Stay healthy | 2017

15 Jul

Skin cancer, one of the most common types of cancer is usually caused by unsafe exposure to sunlight, and begins in the outer layer of the skin, the epidermis. Depending on the cells it developes from, there are three main types of skin cancer: ...

Stay healthy | 2017

26 Jul

According to World Health Organization, cancer is the most important cause of death in Europe, after cardiovascular diseases, causing 20% of annual deaths. Being accountable for 1,7 million deaths each year, doctors say the main problem is the very...

Stay healthy | 2017

16 Aug

breastcancernow.org Cancer, one of the most common hereditary diseases, is caused by genetic changes that affect our body’s cell function. According to World Health Organization, every year 14 million people are diagnosed with a type of cancer and 8...

Stay healthy | 2017

15 Aug

inspirationbio.com According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the biggest cause of death in Europe, following heart disease, and about it is responsible for 20% of the annual deaths. This means that every year, 14 million people are diagnosed...

Stay healthy | 2017

22 Sep

Every year, the 15th of September is dedicated to raising awareness for one of the most common causes of cancer for children and teenagers – lymphoma. While we may have heard of it, not many of us really know what lymphoma is, or that it is the 11th...

Stay healthy | 2017

29 Sep

Technology is a big part of many aspects of our lives, and it is a well-known fact that many of us have been using it more and more in the process of maintaining our body healthy and fit. Whether it is a workout app or one who reminds you to drink...

Stay healthy | 2017

10 Oct

MediHelp International (www.medihelp-assistance.com), leader on the CEE health insurance market, present in Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Poland (MediSky), is announcing that starting this month, international health insurance plans and the NESAcard...

Stay healthy | 2017

27 Oct

Many diseases have similar underlying triggers and causes: food, stress, your digestive system, toxins. Not only can a healthy lifestyle and good diet reduce the risk of illness, but experimental studies have also shown that components in foods or...

Stay healthy | 2017

13 Oct

Tiredness is a common thing among people of all ages, and can be caused by factors varying from the obvious lack of sleep to what we eat or drink, or serious medical conditions. While not unusual, when tiredness becomes constant and persistent with...

Stay healthy | 2017

20 Nov

Did you know that antibiotics can’t treat any disease? While it might sound like a silly question, a lot of people misuse antibiotics to treat colds or flus. Thus, they do more harm than good. Antibiotics only have the power to fight bacterial...

Stay healthy | 2017

19 Dec

We’re already so close to `the most wonderful time of the year`, the time that happily brings all families together. But how many of you think that right under your nose, someone might suffer from a seasonal affective disorder? According to Psychology...

Stay healthy | 2017

15 Jan

The prevalence of diabetes is a problem of modern society, which is why disease prevention has become an extremely important issue nowadays. In Romania, the PREDATORR study, conducted by the Romanian Society for Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic...

Stay healthy | 2018

23 Jan

A healthy diet is a topic most discussed by nutrition specialists because of the influence it has on the quality of life. Adopting a healthy diet, combined with sports, helps improve physical function, maintains a good mood and reduces joint pain....

Stay healthy | 2018

02 Feb

Infections with hepatic viruses HVB and HVC remain a global public health issue, with epidemiology in continuous change, determined by a series of factors, including the vaccination policy and the migration of the populations. These infections represent...

Stay healthy | 2018

06 Feb

Healthy nutrition and attention to daily activities are the solution for reducing the risk of illness and ensuring the quality of life. Acknowledging activities that benefit health and understanding harmful choices are our trump card. Among the...

Stay healthy | 2018

22 Feb

The XXIst century is often called the century of speed, of technological evolution and the Information Age. One of the symptoms most often felt in the third millennium is stress and constant pressure due to an ever busy lifestyle. This collective...

Stay healthy | 2018

08 Mar

The medical and scientific communities report that the preoccupation for building a professional life, translated into prolonged hours at work and constant stress, has an irrecoverable impact on one’s health. According to a report in the American...

Stay healthy | 2018

21 Mar

Sedentarism is a 21st-century issue characterized by an inactive lifestyle which can lead to weakening and atrophy of the muscles and an increased risk of injuries. In this context, more and more doctors recommend spending time outdoors and...

Stay healthy | 2018

12 Apr

Live healthy, live longer - recent research has shown that a balanced life means a longer life. The Journal of the American Geriatric Society published a study at the end of 2016 demonstrating that a healthy lifestyle can not only prolong life but...

Stay healthy | 2018

04 Apr

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is, Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine –...

Stay healthy | 2018

24 Apr

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the lower front of the neck and has an essential role in the body's good functioning. For an in-depth understanding of the gland, it can be seen as a central unit that secretes hormones...

Stay healthy | 2018

31 May

Anxiety - a natural reaction to modern life, with physical and psychological effects. In the short term, this state is the awareness of an intense situation that prepares a person for a specific and significant action, be it a presentation, an interview or...

Stay healthy | 2018

01 Jun

Food is the fuel of life, as assimilated nutrients determine its quality, influencing health both in the short and long term. A varied diet helps build the resistance blocks which reside in our body in the form of antibodies that make up the immune system....

Stay healthy | 2018

14 Jun

Helicobacter Pylori (HP) is a human pathogen that is transmitted from human to human, producing active chronic gastritis in all colonized patients. HP infection is known and accepted as a major etiologic factor in gastric cancer, being known that at...

Stay healthy | 2018

04 Jul

Do you often participate with friends in the grill season? Are you wondering if red meat increases the risk of disease? Cancer, rheumatism and other chronic inflammatory diseases? Does it depend on the quality, type and method of preparation?Discover the...

Stay healthy | 2018

06 Jul

Cancer is one of the most widespread diseases in the world, and by 2030 it is estimated that the number of new cases will increase by 23.6 million per year. The degree of spread and effects on the body makes the care for prevention and treatment a matter...

Stay healthy | 2018

16 Jul

The community of Romanian expatriates in Europe counts over 3.5 million people, according to the latest estimates made by the Foreign Ministry. Whether they have gone on an experience exchange, or work in various fields, such as transport, HORECA, health...

Stay healthy | 2018

02 Aug

Do you often eat eggs or egg-products?Research shows - the answer to this question is quite complex  Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is, Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of...

Stay healthy | 2018

22 Aug

 Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2018

30 Aug

Family is a concept that defines the comfort zone of each person, the power source, the pattern of conduct, a safe space from where the journey of each of us begins. Building a family to ensure all of this for a child is a constant responsibility of any...

Stay healthy | 2018

14 Sep

The connection between oral and general health is a close one, which makes the responsibility for dental hygiene extremely important. Oral health offers us clues regarding the general state of health, also having direct effects over it. The emergence of...

Stay healthy | 2018

24 Sep

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is, Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2018

27 Sep

The notion of food disorder involves a psychological problem, spread among women and men alike, covering a wide area of unhealthy eating habits, from compulsive eating to anorexia. Usually, this health problem manifests because of stress and excessive...

Stay healthy | 2018

18 Oct

What is the best strategy to recruit specialized workforce? How do companies manage to secure the loyalty of good employees? These two questions reflect the preoccupation of the HR and Management departments to create and maintain a proactive work...

Stay healthy | 2018

18 Oct

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2018

25 Oct

In the last few years, the business environment has gained momentum, and there is a new trend on the horizon: freelancers or small companies of two or three people who offer niche products or services. Often, they work on a project basis or deliver a...

Stay healthy | 2018

20 Nov

Healthy and happy employees are those who go beyond the target, working to achieve the company's goals and providing a proactive work environment. For these reasons, the investment in their well-being has become a priority for companies of all sizes, which...

Stay healthy | 2018

05 Dec

  Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2018

09 Nov

Workplace stress is a widespread factor and cause for many diseases often encountered among employees who use their healthcare insurance to make an appointment to the doctor. The data shows that on average one person has to juggle with 30 to 100 projects...

Stay healthy | 2018

14 Dec

Private health insurance covers the costs of a wide range of medical services, being valid for both consultations and treatments in case of illness. This ensures access to the best quality services at national and even international level, offering the...

Stay healthy | 2018

21 Dec

Sight is the sense that helps us to learn as much as possible about the surrounding environment. Therefore, the eyes must be as protected as possible from the disorders that may occur throughout life. Whether we are at work or at home, we must take all...

Stay healthy | 2018

23 Jan

More and more people understand the importance of accessing the best doctors and the latest treatments, which is why they choose private health insurance that guarantees the quality of their medical services. This trend is also noticeable among Romanians,...

Stay healthy | 2019

22 Jan

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

29 Jan

Children's success and happiness are among the main concerns of parents, this is why there are more and more books on parenting, more and more extracurricular activities to help children perform at school and more and more complex programs to prepare them...

Stay healthy | 2019

05 Feb

Eleonora Brillo* and Gian Carlo Di Renzo Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Centre for Perinatal and Reproductive Medicine, S. Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, University of Perugia, 06132 Perugia, Italy Prof. Di Renzo, Honorary...

Stay healthy | 2019

20 Feb

  Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

22 Feb

A healthy lifestyle requires a particular care of the body and mind, and those who desire such a lifestyle need to pay attention to a few essential rules. The most long-lived people in the world, the Japanese, pay great attention to the health of their...

Stay healthy | 2019

26 Feb

The liver is the largest gland in the human body, being a voluminous parenchymatous organ with a weight ranging from 1200 to 1500 mg. Like the pancreas, it has an exocrine function and endocrine function, but, unlike it, a single cell, the hepatocyte, is...

Stay healthy | 2019

28 Feb

Health is a subject people are more and more concerned with. We try to eat healthier, to find time to exercise or to have ourselves checked by a physician, all of which prove that we are aware that prevention is more important than treatment. We try to...

Stay healthy | 2019

19 Mar

  Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

21 Mar

The birth of a baby is not always free of complications. In some cases, the child could be diagnosed with a congenital malformation, and the cause can’t always be precisely established. From pregnancy and birth complications, to genetic malformations and...

Stay healthy | 2019

25 Mar

Health is the most valuable resource we posses and we need to enjoy it every moment of life. It is precisely because it is so important that it requires special care and each of us is responsible for the actions taken in this regard. One of the available...

Stay healthy | 2019

08 Apr

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

30 Apr

What are allergies, in reality? Allergies are a normal response of the immune system that identifies the intruder considered dangerous and triggers a series of defence mechanisms in order to eliminate it as soon as possible from our body. How and to...

Stay healthy | 2019

15 Apr

The difference between a healthy body and a weakened body lies in the daily choices we make, and our interaction with the outside world and our state of mind can be directly influenced by essential aspects such as nutrition. What does an appropriate...

Stay healthy | 2019

14 May

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

27 May

Physical condition has become a pillar in defining a good health condition, that is why food, which has a direct impact on the physical body, receives an increasing attention from people. Observing the meals of a day and the amount of physical effort we...

Stay healthy | 2019

15 May

The ever-increasing rhythm of daily activities can have a major impact on our health. We assume more and more responsibilities, we carry out more and more tasks at work, but also in our personal lives, we get involved in projects, and these things can...

Stay healthy | 2019

07 Jun

The moments spent with the family are some of the happiest moments in our lives, and summer holidays are an opportunity to build memories with loved ones. Whether we visit relatives from distant areas, whether we are on a trip to a foreign country, summer...

Stay healthy | 2019

25 Jun

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

26 Jun

Parachute jumping or scuba diving? Roving on canoe on a churning river or exploring caves? Our activities are becoming more and more diverse and involve a growing level of courage. We are looking for new ways to test our boundaries and live unique...

Stay healthy | 2019

28 Jun

Prof Irinel Popescu is a prominent surgeon and a member of the Romanian Academy of Sciences. He is a leader in surgical oncology and liver-related medical procedures. For the last three decades, Prof Popescu has been the pioneer and motivator of liver...

Stay healthy | 2019

08 Jul

Unpleasant or dangerous situations cause changes in the way our human body works. When, for example, a dangerous dog barks in our direction or a car approaches us at a speed in traffic, the body enters an alert state in order to prepare us to overcome the...

Stay healthy | 2019

15 Jul

How many times have you not put your mind to starting a new activity or giving up an unhealthy habit, only to observe, after a period, that you didn’t succeed in accomplishing the challenge? Reaching goals can sometimes be complicated, and it is therefore...

Stay healthy | 2019

17 Jul

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

14 Aug

As unusual as it may seem to us, there is a strong connection between our mental balance and the integrity of the intestinal microflora. The brain and gastrointestinal tract communicate directly through the intestine-microbiome-brain axis, which will...

Stay healthy | 2019

20 Aug

Nutrition is an essential aspect of our health; therefore, we must learn to choose products that are beneficial to us, which have high nutritional value and help the body to function properly. One of the important challenges we are witnessing today is...

Stay healthy | 2019

27 Aug

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

20 Sep

Prof Irinel Popescu is a prominent surgeon and a member of the Romanian Academy of Sciences. He is a leader in surgical oncology and liver-related medical procedures. For the last three decades, Prof Popescu has been the pioneer and motivator of liver...

Stay healthy | 2019

12 Sep

The physical condition is an essential factor in maintaining a good health and more and more Romanians are beginning to understand this reality. Equally, they become aware that attention and care for their own health is an accessible way to have a balanced...

Stay healthy | 2019

26 Sep

The birth of a child represents a one-of-a-kind moment for any mother. A new dimension is unfolded to her and she will need a period of adaptation, in which the support received from others is very important. The emotions felt by a mother after giving...

Stay healthy | 2019

08 Oct

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

15 Oct

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2019

22 Oct

From the first moment of pregnancy, the bond between a mother and the child she is about to bring into the world becomes indestructible and will connect the two for the rest of their lives. The new mother will become the support for her little baby, and...

Stay healthy | 2019

29 Oct

It is no secret anymore that exercising is extremely important for our overall well-being, as it has a very poignant impact on health. Being fit is an essential condition for the daily activities, which is why exercising must become a...

Stay healthy | 2019

21 Oct

Prof. Irinel Popescu is a prominent surgeon and a member of the Romanian Academy of Sciences. He is a leader in surgical oncology and liver-related medical procedures. For the last three decades, Prof Popescu has been the pioneer and motivator of liver...

Stay healthy | 2019

05 Nov

  Private health insurances are a more and more accessed instrument due to the flexibility they offer to their beneficiaries. They guarantee access to the most efficient medical services in the country or abroad and create the necessary framework for...

Stay healthy | 2019

12 Nov

Second Opinion is becoming a more and more spread medical practice which offers patients the possibility to look for a higher certainty level in relation to a certain diagnosis or treatment.  Sometimes, the medical condition a person is diagnosed with...

Stay healthy | 2019

10 Dec

The quality of life is influenced by a variety of factors, from the lifestyle to the inheritance of genes that predispose a person to certain genetic diseases.  Choices such as eating, smoking or playing a sport play a fundamental role in how the body...

Stay healthy | 2019

20 Dec

The coming of winter can be a challenge, especially because the holiday season favours a sedentary lifestyle and negligent eating behaviour. Also, the cold weather prevents some physical activities, such as running or playing sports outdoors, and culinary...

Stay healthy | 2019

07 Jan

Premature birth can have serious consequences for the baby's health, and globally, around 15 million children are born prematurely. Of these, a small part is born long before the end of the 37 weeks. A birth is considered premature if a baby is born...

Stay healthy | 2020

21 Jan

Technology is a significant part of our lives. Its evolution has offered us many benefits throughout time, but it also has its less pleasant effects. An example of this is the accidents caused by the use of smartphones. Studies that include an analysis...

Stay healthy | 2020

16 Jan

Prof. Dr. Werner Seebauer is Dean of Studies – Association of German Preventologists, Head of Preventive Medicine Department of Institute of Transcultural Health Sciences (European University Viadrina) and Head of Preventive Medicine – NESA (The New...

Stay healthy | 2020

03 Feb

Dr. Ofer Gluck graduated from the Semmelweiss Faculty of Medicine in Budapest, Hungary and he is specialized in ENT medicine, head & neck surgery in the Soroka Hospital in Beer Sheva. After the completion of his specialization, he started a fellowship...

Stay healthy | 2020

04 Feb

What is it? Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some causing illness in people and others that circulate among animals, including camels, cats and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can evolve and infect people and then spread between people such...

Stay healthy | 2020

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